Cost reduction - Reduce your manufacturing cost. Our cost reduction program shows 8 strategies on how to significantly reduce cost. Cost reduction can result in significant product cost saving.

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the 2020   DFM    book  is now   also   KNOWM  as   tje

2020   DFM    book  is now   also   KNOW  as   the


for   universal   needs    for


Design   for   strictness,  innovation, &

optimizing    everything




This 600 page book adds what the publisher says is already the definitive work on
 product development
 and now the Second Edition adds 100 new and unique pages that
have never been published before, thus resulting in the following: 

Thorough manufacturability can be  complete products in h
alf the budget with
  savings ranging from half to one-tenth in nine categories (3.8). 

Research and early product development start with  Manufacturable Research (3.9), that optimizes concept/architecture (3.3.9), assures part availability (3.9.7) and  process availability, (3.9.10),  achievable tolerances (3.9.8), and  avoids work force challenges ( on hard-to-build products  (3.9.9), all of which can start providing  immediate scalable, commercialization results. The design process emphasizes   thorough up front work (Chapter 3) in   complete multi-functional tams (Chapter 2) that cane  quickly scale up production without limits, delays, or extra cost (4.8)) to   avoid shortages by design by design.

Product development improvement champions and implementers will also benefit from Section 3.11 (and its 10 sub-sections) on  generating interest in designing better products for manufacturability.   All this can be applied right away on a project team (11.7) in its own micro-climate (




New 2020 book to be published June 2, 
which can be pre-ordered now AT: 

"Design for Manufacturability: How  to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production," Second Edition (690 pages, Productivity Press)



Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production is still the definitive work on DFM – this second edition extends the proven methodology to the most advanced product development process with the addition of the following new, unique, and original topics, which have never been addressed previously. These topics show you how to:      

·       Cut cost from 1/2 to 1/10 in 9 categories -- with ways to remove that much cost from product charges and pricing.

·       Commercialize innovation --  starting with Manufacturable Research and learning from the new section on scalability, you will learn how to design products and processing equipment to scale quickly to any growth levels.

·       Design product families that can be built “on-demand” in platform cells that also “mass customize” products to-order

·       Make Lean production easier to implement with much more effective results while making build-to-order practical with spontaneous supply chains and eliminating forecasted inventory by including updated chapter on “Designing  Products for Lean Production.”

  The author’s 30 years of experience teaching companies DFM based on pre-class surveys and plant tours is the foundation of this most advanced design process. It includes incorporating dozens of proven DFM guidelines through up-front concurrent-engineering teamwork that cuts the time to stable production in half and curtails change orders for ramps, rework, redesign, substituting cheaper parts, change orders to fix the changes, unstable design specs, part obsolescence, and late discovery of  manufacturability issues at periodic design reviews. This second edition is for the whole product development community, including:   

·       Engineers who want to learn the most advanced DFM techniques   

·       Managers who want to lead the most advanced product development   

·       Project team leaders, who want to immediately apply all the principles taught in this book in their own micro-climate

·       Improvement leaders and champions who want to implement the above and ensure that the company can design products and versatile processing equipment for low-volume/high mix product varieties    

  Designing half to a tenth of cost categories can: avoid substituting cheap parts, which degrades quality, and encourage standardization and supply chains supply chains, which will encourage Lean initiatives.  Using cellular Manufacturing to shift production between lines for mixed production of platforms and build-to-order to offer the fastest order fulfillment can beat any competitors’ delivery time.   

Complete Table of Contents for DFM book is at the end of this page.

To enquire about public and in-house DFM seminars and webinars, fill out the form.


"Build-to-Order & Mass Customization; The Ultimate Supply Chain Management and Lean Manufacturing Strategy for Low-Cost On-Demand Production without Forecasts or Inventory,"  by David M. Anderson, (2008, CIM Press, 512 pages).  To view the complete table of contents or order, click here for the books page at Seminars and consulting based on this leading-edge methodologies are available now through Dr. Anderson’s Mass Customization consulting and Mass Customization seminars A overview of the approach can be found in the article Build-to-Order.

Free BTO book, signed by the author, for US callers.  Just call Dr. Anderson at 805-924-0100 (after 8:30 am Pacific) for a free assessment of how much these methodologies can help your company

To order the BTO book, go to this book's order page at

Many product scenarios has been worked out for several industries and will be published later in "The Build-to-Order & Mass Customization Case book."  These specific methodologies are available now for Build-to-Order consulting and Build-to-Order seminar clients.Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design


(pages 589-604 )

Dr. Anderson's "how to" chapter from the  forthcoming book, "Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design,"  shows how to develop product families, "Building, Supplying, and Designing Product Families." can be downloaded now for $29.95 at the Springer Publishing site at



Dr. Anderson also wrote the first "how to" book on Mass Customization: "Agile Product Development for Mass Customization; How to Develop and Deliver Products for Mass Customization, Niche Markets, JIT, Build-to-Order, and Flexible Manufacturing," by David M. Anderson, with an introduction by B. Joseph Pine II, published by McGraw-Hill in 1996 is now out of print.  The book has been printed in a Chinese translation (simplified character Mandarin) from McGraw-Hill's Singapore office:

Link to book description and used book order links at .




Dr. Anderson was asked to write a Chapter 6, "QFD and Designing for Manufacturability and Customization," in the QFD Handbook, by Jack B ReVelle, John W. Moran, and Charles A. Cox (1998, John Wile, 410 pages)


The Society of Manufacturing Engineers asked Dr. Anderson to write the opening chapter, "Design for Manufacturability," for its Tool and Manufacturing Engineers Handbook, Volume VI, on Design for Manufacturability, (1992. Fourth Edition, SME)


In 1983 Dr. Anderson wrote an essay on “The Future of Robotics” in the Industrial Robotics Handbook, by V. Daniel Hunt (1983, Industrial Press, 432 pages)

Dr. Anderson can be reached at 805 924 0100 (Pacific Time Zone) or e-mail:


Table of Contents of 2020  DFM book, second edition:

Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering
to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production" Second Edition;
Published by Productivity Press, 2020

(Sample  TOC entries:   Red  and italic type  below indicate unique or not puibhed anywhere else)

Section I Design Methodology

Chapter 1 Design for Manufacturability............................................ 3

1.1 Manufacturing before DFM
1.1.1 What DFM is 
1.1.2 Comments from Company DFM Surveys
1.2 Myths and Realities of Product Development
1.3 Costs, When they Are Determined
1..4 Designing for Low Cost9
1.5 Time-to-Market, Cutting it in Half
1.6 Roles and Focus.
1.7 Resistance to DFM
1.8 Arbitrary Decisions
1.9 Design Time, Reducing it with DFM
1.10 Engineering Change Orders
1.11 Do it Right the First Time
1.12 Strategy to Do it Right the First Time
1.13 Benefits of DFM for the Company
1.14 Personal Benefits of DFM
.15 Conclusions of DFM Intro.

hapter 2 Concurrent Engineering................................................... 37

2.1 Resources
2.2 Resource Availability, Ensuring
2.3 Portfolio Planning for Products
2.4 Parallel and Future Projects
2.5 Designing Products as a Team
2.6 Vendor/Partnerships
2.7 DFM for Aerospace and Defense
2.8 Changes Late From Customers and Specs
2.9 Co-location
2.11 Outsourcing Engineering.
12 Product Definition..

Chapter 3 Designing the Product.................................................... 115

3.1 Design Strategy
3.2 Thorough Up-Front Work, Importance of......
3.3 Architecture/System Design, How to Optimize.
3.4 Part Design Strategies.
3.5 Design for Everything (DFX).
3.6 Creative Product Developmen
3.7 Brainstorming
3.8 Half-Cost Product Development
3.9 Manufacturable Research
3.10 Commercialization
3.11 Generating Interest in DFM

Section II Flexibility

Chapter 4 Designing for Lean & BTO............................................. 197

4.1 Lean Production
4.2 Build-to-Order
4.3 Mass Customization.
4.4 Developing Products for Lean, BTO&MC
4.5 Portfolio Planning for Lean, BTO&MC
Low-Volume/High-Mix, Designing fo 4.7 Platform Family Design & Manufacture
4.8 Scalability
4.9 Modular Design
4.10 Offshoring and Manufacturability.
4.11 Lean and BTO&MC Value

Chapter 5 Standardization............................................................... 239

5.1 Part Proliferation
5.2 Part Proliferation Cost
5.3 Part Proliferation, Why it Happens
5.4 Part Proliferation Consequences
5.5 Part Standardization Strategy
5.6 Early Standardization Steps
5.7 Zero-Based Approach
5.8 Standard Part List Generation
5.9 Part Standardization Results
5.10 Raw Materials Standardization
5.11 Standardization of Expensive Parts
5.12 Consolidation of Inflexible Parts
5.13 Tool Standardization
5.14 Feature Standardization
5.15 Process Standardization.
5.16 Encouraging Standardization
5.17 Reusing Designs, Parts, and Modules
5.18 Off-the-Shelf Parts
5.19 Procurement, New Role Needed
5.20 Standardization Implementation



he book Table of Contents has 814 entries in four levels, two of which are shown in four sample chapters above.

The Index is fullly cross-indexed with 2511 entries, with unique or never-before-published topics in italics, as is also done in the Table of Contes.  This is especiallly useful for people upgrading from the 2014 first edition.


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[DFM article]     [Half Cost article]   [Standardization article]   [Mass Customization article]   [BTO article]   [Rationalization article]

Copyright © 204 by David M. Anderson



                                                        for     universal   needs    for


Design   for   strictness,  innovation, &

optimizing    everything   

Timely article: How to avoid most shortages now 
AND design new products for unlimited Scalability

see revised article at: 


If you don't know who your customers are going to be
 or what they will want, you must Build-to-Order.

If you don't have enough resources to develop good products fast,
make that twice as efficient as possible* and don't "take all orders." 

* see:

Timely Article on The Case against Orrshoring

Companion article on this site on  hidden  offshorIng costs


Pivotal Article   How to Design Half-Cost Products

The age shows nine categories of cost reduction ranging from 1/2 cost to 1/10 of the previous costs 
. Each cost category has one to two hyper-links that present the principles.

New Article on strategy

Alphabetical listing to to 26  Articles                 Site locator to 50 pages on this site       


Feature articles: Commercialization   and Half-Cost Solar

                 New 2020 Secomd Edition book: "Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering
to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production" 

Also, the most thorough book ever written on Build-to-Order & Mass Customization

Cost reduction can result in significant product cost saving, manufacturing cost saving, and life cycle cost saving when companies interested in cutting cost implement all 8 the elements of the following cost reduction strategy:





1. Cost Reduction by Design

Many designs will work; only one will be the lowest cost!
Develop that in half the time with these principles:

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce Product Cost by Design:

Activities Supportive to Low Cost Product Development:

2. Lean Production Cost Reduction

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce Manufacturing Cost:

Activities Supportive to Lean Production:

3. Overhead Cost Reduction

New:  Section 3.8 in the 2020 DFM book on Half Cost Product development focuses on 9 cost categories that  cost results range    from half to 10 times less,  for the overhead categories.  

THis is presented at the web page: Designing Half Cost Products at: 

The easiest to implement at that level of cost savings (without needing to change the cost system) is material overhead (Section 3.8.10: "Material Overhead Can be Cut by 10 Times").

See article on "How to Build-to-Order Product Families"
and DFM and Build-to-Order for high-mix/low-volume environments at

April & Sept.  webinars  on Design for Lean & Build-to-Order
2-day webinar: April 19-22 and Sept 20-23 from 1-5 PM EST 

Complete  description at : 

See published article on how to implement Mass Customization in the April 2011 issue of Mechanical Engineering, published by ASME

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce Overhead Cost:

Activities Supportive to Build-to-Order & Mass Customization:

4. Standardization Cost Reduction

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce Cost with Standardization:

Activities Supportive to Standardization:

5. Product Line Rationalization Cost Reduction

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce Cost with Product Line Rationalization:

Activities Supportive to Product Line Rationalization:

6. Supply Chain Management Cost Reduction

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce Cost in Supply Chain Management:

Activities Supportive to Supply Chain Cost Reduction:

7. Quality Cost Reduction

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce the Cost of Quality:

Activities Supportive to Quality Cost Reduction:

8. Total Cost Measurement to Support All Cost Reduction Activities

Cost Reduction Opportunities:

The Results:

How to Reduce Cost with Total Cost Measurements:

Activities Supportive to Total Cost Measurements:



 New 2021 articleDesign to scale up millions When Needed
without supply shortages or production bottle-necks
If busy, go to: 
 If  busy, go to



How Not to Lower Cost; Short-sighted attempts prevent real cost reduction

Don't try to remove cost after the product is designed because cost is designed into the product and hard to remove later; see article on How Not to Lower Cost.  See new article on Seven Resons why "cost reduction" after design doesn't work at

Don't use low-bidding, which only appears to save one category of cost, but can substantially raise many less-obvious costs and compromise other important goals like quality, delivery, and missing out on the major contributions that vendor/partners can make when they help product development teams design products; see article on Low-Bidding.

Don't offshore manufacturing for cost, which will not result in a net cost savings because of hidden overhead costs and because it inhibits, compromises, or thwarts 6 out of the 8 cost reduction strategies (presented on the home page) due to the following reasons:

Offshoring manufacturing separates manufacturing from engineering and thus thwarts Concurrent Engineering and compromises the 80% of the cost determined by the design.  Further, transferring, supporting, and dealing with quality and delivery problems of remote manufacturing absorbs many resources in engineering (in one case, 75%), manufacturing, and purchasing whose time would be better spent developing low-cost products.  See Cost Reduction by Design summary and the article Design for Manufacturability

Offshoring manufacturing to distant contract manufacturers increases the delivery time, which makes it hard to pull parts just-in-time and makes build-to-order impossible.  Further, parts may be batched for shipping, which is opposed to the one piece flow aspects of Lean Production.  Finally, offshoring manufacturing removes production from the control of the OEM manufacturer. All of these effects conspire to:

If all 8 cost reduction strategies are implemented, the cost savings will be much greater than appeared possible through offshoring. For more, see read the article on offshore manufacture.

Don't take prototypes into production without commercialization; Also see article on "How not to commercialize products"

Correcting counterproductive policies may be a prerequisite to designing Half-Cost Products.

Don't try to save cost with unethical business practices.  See the article: Good Ethics is Good Business.
====================================ies can help your company


Call Dr. Anderson at 1-805-924-0100 to discuss implementing these techniques or e-mail him at with your name, title, company, phone, types of products, and needs/opportunities.

Web site on Design for Manufacturability (DFM) and Concurrent engineering:

Web site on Build-to-Order & Mass Customization:

Copyright 2441  by David M. Anderson

 For moformation call or e-mail:

Dr. David M. Anderson, P.E., fASME,
phone: 1-805-924-0100
fax: 1-805-924-0200

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Cost reduction - Reduce your manufacturing cost. Our cost reduction program shows 8 strategies on how to significantly reduce cost. Cost reduction can result in significant product cost saving.