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Pubished by Productivity Press : Design for Manufacturability

Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production

DFM Book Features

  • Explains how to develop manufactured products right the first time
  • Describes how to significantly reduce total costs, raise quality, and achieve the quickest time to stable production
  • Illustrates how to make the most from lessons learned from previous/similar projects
  • Details how to design parts for optimal manufacturability and concurrently engineer factory processes
  • Spells out how to work with purchasing people early on to select parts and materials that maximize quality and availability while assuring desired functionality

Chinese translation now available

This book is the Chinese translation of the definitive book on Design for Manufacturability, written
 by the world’s leading expert on DFM and Concurrent engineering, who has been teaching
this to leading companies for 25 years and, based on those experiences has updated this book
 every couple of years since 1990. Dr. Anderson now offers customized
 webinars to companies all over the world.

This book will show the Chinese-speaking world how to design products for manufacturability,
 low cost, and high quality, in half the time. This book will show Chinese companies how to
shift from being the world’s “outsourcer” to designing its own innovative products that are  built in its own
country for its own people.

This book can be purchased at in China at: 
This Amazon listing shows the table of contents in Mandarin.


DFM Book Summary

Design for Manufacturability: How to Use Concurrent Engineering to Rapidly Develop Low-Cost, High-Quality Products for Lean Production shows how to use concurrent engineering teams to design products for all aspects of manufacturing with the lowest cost, the highest quality, and the quickest time to stable production. Extending the concepts of design for manufacturability into to an advanced product development model, the book explains how to simultaneously make major improvements in all these product development goals, while enabling effective implementation of Lean Production and quality programs.

Illustrating how to make the most of lessons learned from previous projects, the book proposes numerous improvements to current product development practices, education, and management. It outlines effective procedures to standardize parts and materials, save time and money with off-the-shelf parts, and implement a standardization program. It also spells out how to work with the purchasing department early on to select parts and materials that maximize quality and availability while minimizing part lead-times and ensuring desired functionality.

  • Describes how to design families of products for Lean Production, build-to-order, and mass customization
  • Emphasizes the importance of quantifying all product and overhead costs and then provides easy ways to quantify total cost
  • Details dozens of design guidelines for product design, including assembly, fastening, test, repair, and maintenance
  • Presents numerous design guidelines for designing parts for manufacturability
  • Shows how to design in quality and reliability with many quality guidelines and sections on mistake-proofing (poka-yoke)

Describing how to design parts for optimal manufacturability and compatibility with factory processes, the book provides a big picture perspective that emphasizes designing for the lowest total cost and time to stable production. After reading this book you will understand how to reduce total costs, ramp up quickly to volume production without delays or extra cost, and be able to scale up production rapidly so as not to limit growth.

Available now for overnight delivery at


BUILD-TO-ORDER & MASS CUSTOMIZATION book (also available now at for overnight delivery)

"Build-to-Order & Mass Customization; the Ultimate Supply Chain Management and Lean Manufacturing Strategy for Low-Cost On-Demand Production without Forecasts or Inventory," by Dr. David M. Anderson, (2008, CIM Press), Hardbound, 512 pages, ISBN 1-878072-30-7; $49.95. Leading-edge methodologies correspond to Dr. Anderson’s consulting and seminars.

Free BTO book, signed by the author, for US callers.  Just call Dr. Anderson at 805-924-0100 (after 8:30 am Pacific) for a free assessment of how much these methodologies can help your company

See the complete Table of Contents below.

To order this book, go to

Description:  This new book challenges many conventional practices and shows how to implement a revolutionary business model with evolutionary self-supporting steps. Instead of managing complex supply chains, the book has five chapters to show how to simplify supply chains to the point where parts can be spontaneously resupplied without forecasts or purchase orders. Instead of wrestling with all the problems of inventory, "on-demand lean production" can build products spontaneously without any finished-goods inventory. This and several other cost reduction strategies allow significant reductions in total cost. The same production facilities can build-to-order a wide variety of standard products and mass-customize products for niche markets or individual customers.
    The book is written for both managers and implementers with a 64 page executive overview of the whole book followed by 400 pages of detailed methodologies and implementation strategies. There are 300 sidebars throughout the book that emphasize key points.

Many product scenarios has been worked out for several industries and will be published in the subsequent "Build-to-Order & Mass Customization Casebook." These specific methodologies are available now for consulting and seminars clients.

See Table of Contents below for "Build-to-Order & Mass Customization."


(pages 589-604 )
Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design

Dr. Anderson's "how to" chapter from the  forthcoming book, "Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design,"  shows how to develop product families, "Building, Supplying, and Designing Product Families." can be downloaded now for $29.95 at the Springer Publishing site at









"Design for Manufacturability & Concurrent Engineering; How to: Design for Low Cost, Design for High Quality, Design for Lean Production, and Design Quickly for Fast Production" by Dr. David M. Anderson, (2010, 456 pages, CIM Press).  This new book covers all the topics needed to show the reader how to design products for manufacturability, lean production, assembly, flexibility, time-to-market, quality, and reliability. It also shows how to implement DFM company-wide with the latest material on Concurrent Engineering, QFD, architecture optimization, standardization, and shortening product development time and cost.  The book has over 200 DFM guidelines that can be used immediately by designers or adapted and issued to engineers as part of a DFM program. The new revised second edition has grown 40% to 312 pages with 20 illustrations, 125 references, and a 14 page index.  Priced at $49.95; quantity discounts are available.

See Table of Contents below.  Complete index is on line at

For a summary about DFM seminars on this site, click here. For more information on DFM, see


Dr. Anderson also wrote the first "how to" book on Mass Customization: "Agile Product Development for Mass Customization; How to Develop and Deliver Products for Mass Customization, Niche Markets, JIT, Build-to-Order, and Flexible Manufacturing," by David M. Anderson, with an introduction by B. Joseph Pine II, published by McGraw-Hill in 1996 is now out of print.  The book has been printed in a Chinese translation (simplified character Mandarin) from McGraw-Hill's Singapore office:


Dr. Anderson wrote the first general book on DFM, Design for Manufacturability; Optimizing Cost, Quality, and Time-to-Market, 224 pages CIM Press, 1990).  This was the first book to publish the graph the is the basis of common quote that "80% of cost is determined by the design."   It was also the first book to publish a practical standardization procedure, based on the authors successful standardization program at Intel's System Group.




"Half Cost Products: How to Develop, Build, and Deliver Products at Half the Total Cost," is being written by David M. Anderson. These ultimate cost-reduction strategies are available now through Dr. Anderson’s seminars and consulting. Many articles and a comprehensive eight-part cost reduction strategy can be found at .

Links to mass customization seminars and consulting.


Table of Contents, Build-to-Order & Mass Customization




        Current Attempts at Build-to-Order 2
            Searching for Inventory 2
            Capital Equipment Built "To Order" 2
            BTO from Forecasted Parts Inventory 4 
        Precedents 4
           Dell Computer 5
        Strategy For BTO&MC 7


Shortcomings of Mass Production, Summary 13
Supply Chain Simplification, Summary 13
Product Line Rationalization, Summary 14
Part Standardization, Summary 16
Raw Material Variety Reduction, Summary 19
Outsourcing vs. Integration, Summary 21
Spontaneous Supply Chain, Summary 28
On-Demand Lean Production, Summary 37
Mass Customization, Summary 44
Concurrent Design of Products and Processes, Summary 49
Minimizing Total Cost, Summary 54
Measuring Total Cost, Summary 58
Implementing BTO&MC, Summary 61
The Business Case for BTO&MC, Summary 69


        1923 – The Heyday of Mass Production 75
        If You Build It, They Might Come 75
        Forecasting – A High Stakes Gamble 77
        Defects by The Batch 79
        Its Only Overhead 79
        Take All Orders 80
        The Effect of Variety on Mass Production 81
        The Cost of Variety 82 
        Trying to Make Mass Production Flexible 85
        Time For New Paradigms 86  



Pareto’s Law for Product Lines 90
Focus 90
How Rationalization Can Triple Profits! 91
Cost Savings From Rationalization 94
    Short Term Cash Savings: 94
    Investments: 95
Shifting Focus to The Most Profitable Products 96
What Is The Goal of a Business? 98
Volume Growth Strategies 99
    Eliminating Duplicate Products 100
The Rationalization Procedure 100
Total Cost Implications 102
    The Margin Trap 103
    Seldom Built Products 103
    Obsolescence Costs 104
Overcoming Inhibitions, Fears, And Resistance 104
Implementation & Corporate Strategy 108
    Mass Production Scenario 108
    BTO&MC Scenario 108
    Product Family Criteria 108
The Value of Rationalization 109


        Part Proliferation 114
           The Cost of Part Proliferation 114
           Why Part Proliferation Happens 115
           The Results of Parts Proliferation 118
        Part Standardization Strategy 119
            New Products 119
            Existing Products 119
        Early Standardization Steps 119
            Eliminate Duplicate Parts 119
            Eliminate Approved but Unused Parts 121
            Part Listing 121
        Standardization Procedure 122
            The Zero-Based Approach 122
            Standard Part List Generation 124
            Part Standardization Results 130
        Tool Standardization 131
        Feature Standardization 132
        Processes Standardization 134
        Standardization of Expensive Parts 135
        Encouraging Standardization 138
        Why Standardization Is So Important 140
            Cost Reduction 141
            Quality 142
            Flexibility 143
            Responsiveness 144


Raw Material Standardization 150
    Bar Stock and Tubing 150
    Sheetmetal 150
    Molding and Casting 151
    Protective Coatings 151
    Programmable Chips 152
Standardization of Linear Materials 152
    Cut as Needed 152
    Kanban Reordering 152
    Printing While Dispensing 153
On-Demand Cutting-to-Shape 153
     Sheetmetal 154
     Linear Cut-Off 157
     CNC Material Standardization 157
     Order Material After Receipt of Product Order 158
Consolidation of Inflexible Parts 159
     Consolidation Examples 161
     Custom Silicon Consolidation 162


Core Competencies 165
Outsourcing 166
    Inappropriate Outsourcing 166
    Definitions: Outsourcing, Integration 167
    Outsourcing and Cost Savings 169
    Outsourcing and Profitability 172
    Outsourcing and Speed 173
    Outsourcing and Flexibility 175
    Outsourcing and Quality 177
    Outsourcing and Product Development 177
    Outsourcing and Manufacturability 178
    Outsourcing and Leading Edge Processing 178
When to Outsource 180
Speed & Parts Plant/Suppliers Location 182
Internal Integration 182
    Tightening the Supply Chain with Selective Vertical Integration 182
    When to Integrate Internally 184
Overseas Manufacturing "To Save Cost" 187
    Total Cost Considerations for Overseas Manufacturing 188
    Competitive Considerations: Overseas Manufacturing 192
    When Overseas Manufacturing Does Make Sense 195
World Trade in The Era of BTO&MC 195



The Role of Part Standardization 203
Raw Material Resupply 203
    Steady Flow of Standard Raw Materials 204
    Material Cut-to-Length/Shape 204
    Linear Cut-Off 205
    Min/Max Stacks 205
    Kanban 205
    Strategic Stockpiles 206
    Order Material After Receipt of Product Order 206
Parts Resupply 206
Part Resupply Strategy 207
    Steady Flow of Parts 207
    Breadtruck Resupply 208
    Criteria for Breadtruck Deliveries: 208
    Kanban 209
    Spontaneous Build-to-Order of Parts 211
    Parts Made On-Demand by Suppliers 212    
    Parts Made On-Demand In-House 212
    Flexible Processing 213
    Strategic Stockpiles 213
    Order Parts After Receipt of Product Order 213
Supplier Lead-Time Reduction 214
Dock-to-Line Part Deliveries 216
    Dock-to-Receiving-to-IQC-to-Warehouse-to-Kitting 216
    Prerequisites for Dock-to-Line 216
    Dock-to-Line 217
    The Problems with Incoming Inspections 217
    Eliminating Incoming Inspections 218
    Certification 218
Low-Bidding For Parts 219
    The Cost Reduction Illusion 219
    Cheap Parts – Save Now; Pay Later 221
    The Value of Relationships for Cost Reduction 222
    Reducing Total Cost Instead of Focusing on Cheap Parts 225
    The Value of High-Quality Parts 225
    The Value of On-Demand Part Delivery 227
    Product Development 228
No Such Thing as Commodities in BTO&MC 229 


        Problems With Setup 234
        Setup & Batch Elimination 235
            Setup & Batch Elimination Steps: 236
            Part Setup 236
            Part/Material Positioning Setup 237
            Tool & Tooling Setup 237
            CNC to Eliminate Machining Setup 238
            Program/Instruction Setup 239
            Process Variable Setup 239
            Manual Processing Setup 240
            Eliminating Setup with Dedicated Lines 240
            Parts with Unavoidable Setup 241
        Flow Manufacturing/One-Piece Flow 242
            Assuring Quality with One-Piece Flow 243
            Defining Product Families 243
            Cellular Manufacture 244
            U-Shaped Lines 245
            Machine Maintenance 246
            Line Balancing 246
        Leveling Production 247
            Artificially Induced Irregularities. 247
            Seasonal Products 250
        Capacity 251
            Short-Term Capacity Challenges 251
            Long-Term Capacity Challenges 252
        Results of Setup Elimination/Batch-Size-of-One Flow 253
        How BTO & Mass Customization Work 254
            BTO&MC for Fabricated Parts or Products, illustration 255    
            BTO&MC for Electronic Systems, illustration 258
            BTO&MC for Manual Assembly, illustration 261


        Awkward, and Expensive, Customization Attempts 268
        The Buzz about Mass Customization 269
        What Mass Customization Really Is 271
        How to Mass-Customize 272
            Modular Customization 274
            Adjustable Customization 277
            Dimensional Customization 278
        Postponement 280
        What to Mass-Customize 281
        Extra Value-Added Opportunities 282
        Order Entry 283
        Marketing BTO & Mass Customization 284
        Combined Mass Customization And BTO 287
        The 98% Solution 288



Challenges With Existing Products 291
Developing Products For BTO&MC 292
Product Portfolio Planning 292
Designing Products For BTO&MC 293
    Product Definition for BTO&MC 293
    Concurrently Engineer Products and Processes 298
Designing For On-Demand Production 300
    Designing for No Setup 300
    Designing for CNC 301
Designing For Spontaneous Supply 303
    Designing Around Standard Parts 303
    Designing to Reduce Material Variety 303
    Designing Around Readily Available Parts/Materials 304
Design For Manufacturability 305
    Avoid Left/Right Hand Parts 305
    Combine Parts and Functions into a Single Part 306
    Specify Prefinished Material 307
    Arbitrary Decisions 307
Modular Design 308
    Modular Design Principles 310
Off-the-Shelf Parts 311
    Finding Off-the-Shelf Parts 313


        How Not to Achieve Low Cost 318
         Cost Measurements 320
            Usual Definition of Cost 320
            Part Cost Percentage Thru Outsourced Supply Chain 323
        Minimizing Cost Through Design 326
        Minimizing Product Development Expenses 328
        Minimizing Engineering Change Order Cost 332
        Minimizing the Cost of Quality 333
        Maximizing Factory Efficiency 335
        Rational Selection of Lowest Cost Supplier 335
        Lowering Overhead Costs with Flexibility 337
        Eliminating Inventory Costs 337
        Minimizing Customization/Configuration Costs 339
        Minimizing the Cost of Variety 340
        Minimizing Materials Management Costs 343
        Minimizing Marketing Costs 344
        Minimizing Sales/Distribution Costs 344
        Minimizing Supply Chain Costs 345
        Minimizing Life Cycle Costs 345
        Saving Cost with Build-to-Order 345
        Economies-of-Scale 348


Total Cost Measurement 353
Quantifying Overhead Costs 355
    Acknowledge Deficiencies of Traditional Accounting 355
    Estimate the Degree of Cost Distortions 359
    Understand the Value of Total Cost Measurements 359
    Implementing Total Cost Measurements 361
Total Cost Thinking 362
Implementing Total Cost Accounting 364
Tracking Product Development Expenses 370
Implementing "abc" – The Low Hanging Fruit Approach 371
Typical Results of ABC Implementations 373


        The Flexibility Spectrum 379
        BTO&MC Implementation 382
        Identify Goals and Drivers 382
        Obtain Customer Inputs 382
        Identify Where to Start 382
        Line up Resources 384
        Minimize Fears and Inhibitions 385
        Establish Criteria for "Within the BTO&MC System" 386
        Create Implementation Road Map 387
            Implementation Activities with Early Deliverables 388
            Implementation Cautions 390
        Focus And Staffing For BTO&MC 390
            Segregating BTO&MC and Oddball/Craft Products 392
        Product Families 393
            Grouping Products into Families 395
        BTO&MC Production Strategy 396
            High-Volume/No-Variation Products 396
            Medium-Volume/No-Variety Products 397
            Low-Volume/High-Variety and Custom Products 398
        Implementation Scenarios 398
            Build Standard Products To-Order 399
            Build Custom Products On-Demand 399
            Regional/Industry-Specific Plants 400
            Customer-Specific Lines 400
            Expand Downstream 401
            Expand Upstream 402
        Capital Costs For Implementation 402
            High-Volume Dedicated Production Lines 402
            Medium-Volume Dedicated Production Lines 403
            Low-Volume and Customized Products 403
            Capital Cost Summary 404
        Human Resources for Implementation 405
            View BTO&MC as an Investment 405
            Bring in Outside Expertise 406
            Start with Pilot(s) 406
            Combine Programs 406
            Minimize Competing Programs 407
            Focus on Compatible Products & Processes 407
            Redirect Cost Reduction Efforts 407
            Delegate Firefighting 408
            Offloading Responsibilities 408
            Identify Money-Losing Products 408
            Rationalization 408
        Downturn Strategies 409
            Don’t Lay off People 409
            Don’t Halt Training and Improvement Programs 412
            Don’t Compromise Product Development 413
            Don’t Keep Plants Busy Building Inventory 413
            Don’t Cut Prices 414
            Do Expand into Related Products/Services 415
            Do Pull in Outsourced Production, Selectively 415
            Do Improve Productivity and Invest in the Business 416
            Do Implement Improvement Programs 416



Cost Advantages of BTO&MC 420
Responsive Advantages of BTO&MC 422
Distribution 423
Customer Satisfaction From BTO&MC 424
Competitive Advantages of BTO&MC 425
Bottom Line Advantages of BTO&MC 426
Growth, Sales, and Profits from BTO&MC 426
    Trying to Grow Without a Viable Strategy 426
Mergers And Acquisitions 428
    M & A Distractions 430
    Appropriate Use of M & A 432
Growth from the Core 432
    Expansion of Standard Product Sales 435
    Niche Market Growth 435
    New Markets for Customized Products 435
    Avoiding Commodity Status 437
Lean Retailing 438
Conclusions 439

INDEX 443 - 460

For more information call or e-mail:

Dr. David M. Anderson, P.E., CMC
Fellow, American Society of Mechanical Engineers
phone: 1-805-924-0100
fax: 1-805-924-0200

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